2016年5月8日日曜日

〔翻訳〕戦争と政府信仰

政府の能力と権威に対する信仰を保つのに一番効果があるのは、戦争に向いた体制の維持。…人々が政府の権威を信じれば、戦争に十分な強制力を政府に与える。この政府信仰は同時に、戦争以外の目的でも強制力を与える。(スペンサー)
Herbert Spencer on the State’s cultivation of “the religion of enmity” to justify its actions (1884)  
Chiefly, however, the maintenance of this faith [in governmental ability and authority] is necessitated by the maintenance of fitness for war...it is requisite that men should have such belief in the authority of government as shall give it adequate coercive power over them for war purposes—a belief in its authority which inevitably, at the same time, gives it coercive power over them for other purposes.
http://oll.libertyfund.org/quotes/476

市民は代表を通じ、戦争をひとまとめにするのではなく、個々の宣戦について自由意思による同意を表明しなければならない。この限られた条件の下でのみ、政府は市民に対して危険に満ちた軍務を求める権利を得る。(カント)
Kant believed that citizens must give their free consent via their representatives to every separate declaration of war (1790)
As such they [citizens] must give their free consent, through their representatives, not only to the carrying on of war generally, but to every separate declaration of war; and it is only under this limiting condition that the State has a Right to demand their services in undertakings so full of danger.
http://oll.libertyfund.org/quotes/452

主イエス・キリストの教えは、名将をほめたたえることでもなければ、戦勝の分け前にあずかることでもなかった。「地には平和を、人には恵みを」と説くことだった。(コブデン)
Richard Cobden on public opinion and peace on earth (c. 1865)
When the Master whom you especially serve, and whose example and precepts are the sole credentials of your faith, mingled in the affairs or this life, it was not to join in the exaltation of military genius, or share in the warlike triumphs of nation over nation, but to preach “Peace on EARTH and good will toward MEN.”
http://oll.libertyfund.org/quotes/408

英国での革命は避けられまい。…英国政府は、牛をまねて腹を膨らませた寓話の蛙のように重ねてふるまい、膨張した体制は破裂した。…国債は愚行といかさまで積み上がり、利払いは国内農家の合計と等しくなった。(ジェファーソン)
Jefferson on the inevitability of revolution in England only after which there will be peace on earth (1817)
I turn, however, with some confidence to a different auxiliary, a revolution in England, now, I believe unavoidable...Their government has acted over again the fable of the frog and the ox; and their bloated system has burst...Their debts have consequently accumulated by their follies & frauds, until the interest is equal to the aggregate rents of all the farms in their country.
http://oll.libertyfund.org/quotes/417

米国政府は公共利益の追求を唯一の目的とし、憲法に結実した偉大な原則と、米国民が堅く信じる道徳原則とによってその手段を制限する。…他国の安らぎを侵さず、他国から侵されれば撃退する。(マディソン)
Madison on “the most noble of all ambitions” which a government can have, of promoting peace on earth (1816)
And may I not be allowed to add to this gratifying spectacle that I shall read in the character of the American people, in their devotion to true liberty and to the Constitution which is its palladium, sure presages that the destined career of my country will exhibit a Government pursuing the public good as its sole object, and regulating its means by the great principles consecrated in its charter, and by those moral principles to which they are so well allied; … a Government which avoids intrusions on the internal repose of other nations, and repels them from its own;
http://oll.libertyfund.org/quotes/418

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